Jumat, 14 Februari 2014

Structural Grammar

1. The philosophers in the Structural Grammar developing English:

A.European Structural Linguistics:

Sir William Jones

In the 1780s Sir William Jones, an Englishman, contributed invaluable linguistic information. He had become fascinated with Sanskrit. He had come across the work of an ancient Indian scholar, Panini, who had written an extremely detailed grammar of Sanskrit during the fifth century B.C.

Jones had convinced tat the enormous number of similarities between the roots of Sanskrit and those of Greek and Latin provided strong evidence that all three of these languages were in some way related.

Jones hypothesized that a great many other European and Asian languages probably had histories which could be traced back to the same original parent language.

Jones speculated that whatever that original source language might have been, it had been spoken so far back in history that it no longer existed.

Franz Bopp

In 1816 Franz Bopp, a German language scholar who is often called the founder of historical and comparative linguistics, published Uber das Conjugationssystem, in which he did two things:

First, he supported the results of his own comparative studies of verb inflections in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Persian, and several of the European Teutonic (Germanic) languages.

Second, he contended that his own results, along with those of other comparative inquiries, furnished convincing support for the theory that not only had all these languages developed simultaneously, although independently, from a single parent language, but that it also was quite possible to recover enough empirical historical linguistic evidence to be able to reconstruct a fairly close approximation of that ancient Indo-European language which had bben the source of them all.

Charles Darwin

In 1859, Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was published, followed twelve years later by a second book, The Descent of Man.  In these volumes Darwin argued that humans evolved, very gradually and over an enormous period historical time, from more primitive ancestors.

B. American Structural Linguistics:

Franz Boas & Edwars Sapir

Franz Boas, and later his student, Edward Sapir, were the first to formally proposed that structural analysis should be conducted on three sucessive levels, beginning with the sound level, proceeding next to word structure analysis, and only then to the analysis of syntax or sentence structure.

Leonard Bloomfield

Bloomfield’s most important contribution as probably his method of “immediate constituent” analysis.

Charles Carpenter Fries

Among Fries contributions were these:
First, he divised a word-classification system based solely on the forms or structure of isolated words.
Second, he listed five grammatical devices which serve, in English, to signal grammatical clues.
Third, he invented asystem of grammatical analysis by means of test frames.

2. The characteristics of structural grammar:

A. Principle of structural grammar:

Lyon says that structural grammar or modern linguistics is based upon the following principles:

- Priority of spoken language
Linguistics is a descriptive, not a prescriptive science.

- The linguist is interested in all language
Priority of synchronic description.

- The structural approach
‘Langue’ and ‘parole’.

B. The grammar system

A language must have a system for putting its words together in meaningul relationships. This is the role of a grammar, and it is what the structuralist refers to as grammatical meaning.

- Nominalization: a method of indicating names for objects and ideas; also, a means of changing nonnaming structure to a naming one.

- Predication: a method of making an assertion or an affirmation.
Modification a means of associating particular qualities, limitations, or qualifications with a particular word or idea.

- Subordination: a method of showing the relative importance of ideas of unequal significance.

- Coordination: a method of showing that certain words or ideas are of equal importance.

- Complementation: a means of completing a construction begun by a verb.


Work at the phonological level in the description of English was made possible largely by the contributions of Trager and Smith, who devised a method of isolating English phonemes and who developed a phonemic alphabet for American English phonemes.


Investigation at the morphological level is confined to word-structure, and while investigators may make use of the methodology and conclusions of the lower phonological level, the may not justify any of the morphological analysis by reference to the higher, syntactic level.


Our next task is to look beyond isolated forms to determine the syntactic environments in which certain word types typically occur.

(Sumber: Textbook Mata Kuliah Grammar)

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